Signs and symptoms of hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia


Hyperglycemia refers to elevated blood sugar levels and is commonly associated with diabetes. The signs and symptoms of hyperglycemia can include:

  1. Increased Thirst (Polydipsia):
    • Feeling unusually thirsty and having a constant need to drink water.
  2. Frequent Urination (Polyuria):
    • Needing to urinate more often than usual, including during the night.
  3. Increased Hunger (Polyphagia):
    • Experiencing excessive hunger, even after eating.
  4. Blurred Vision:
    • Vision may become blurry or impaired.
  5. Fatigue:
    • Feeling unusually tired or lethargic.
  6. Slow Healing of Cuts and Wounds:
    • Wounds may take longer to heal than usual.
  7. Dry Mouth and Skin:
    • Mouth and skin may feel dry.
  8. Headaches:
    • Some individuals may experience headaches.
  9. Nausea and Vomiting:
    • Nausea and, in severe cases, vomiting may occur.
  10. Shortness of Breath:
    • Difficulty breathing or shortness of breath may be present.
  11. Fruity Breath Odor:
    • In cases of diabetic ketoacidosis (a serious complication of diabetes), the breath may have a fruity or sweet odor.
  12. Confusion:
    • Severe hyperglycemia can lead to confusion or difficulty concentrating.


Hypoglycemia, or low blood sugar, can occur when blood glucose levels drop below normal. This is often a side effect of diabetes medications, particularly insulin. The signs and symptoms of hypoglycemia can include:

  1. Shakiness or Trembling:
    • Feeling shaky or trembling, particularly in the hands.
  2. Sweating:
    • Experiencing excessive sweating, even when it’s not hot.
  3. Dizziness or Lightheadedness:
    • Feeling dizzy or lightheaded.
  4. Irritability or Mood Changes:
    • Sudden changes in mood, including irritability or anxiety.
  5. Hunger:
    • Feeling very hungry.
  6. Blurry Vision:
    • Vision may become blurry.
  7. Headache:
    • Some individuals may experience headaches.
  8. Weakness or Fatigue:
    • Feeling weak or fatigued.
  9. Difficulty Concentrating:
    • Difficulty focusing or concentrating.
  10. Numbness or Tingling:
    • Numbness or tingling in the lips, tongue, or other parts of the body.
  11. Seizures or Loss of Consciousness:
    • In severe cases, hypoglycemia can lead to seizures or loss of consciousness.

It’s important for individuals with diabetes to be aware of these symptoms and to monitor blood sugar levels regularly. Prompt treatment for hypoglycemia typically involves consuming a source of glucose, such as fruit juice or glucose tablets. For hyperglycemia, adjustments to medication, dietary changes, and increased physical activity may be recommended under the guidance of healthcare professionals.